Scientific Name
Pennahia macrocephalus  
Pennahia macrocephalus大頭白姑魚
by: Lab of Fish Ecol. and Evo., BRCAS
Author (Tang, 1937) Depth 3 - 100M
Chinese 大頭白姑魚 Poisonous Fish No 
Family_Chinese 石首魚科 Economic Fish Yes 
Family F381 Sciaenidae Edible Fish Yes  Chinese In Mainland China 大頭銀姑魚 
Max Length 23 cm  Aquarium Fish No  Common Name 帕頭、加網(澎湖)、闊嘴加網、深水加網、正帕頭(臺南安平) 
Distribution in World India Ocean to West Pacific Ocean   Distribution in Taiwan East、West、North、PonFu 
Habitats Benthos、Coastal  Holotype Locality Amoy, China 
Synonyms Argyrosomus macrocephalus, Pennahia macrocephala, Pseudosciaena macrocephalus   
Reference 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);福建魚類誌(朱等, 1985);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)  朱元鼎 編 1985 沈世傑 編 Shih-Chieh Shen ed. 1993 
Specimen List ASIZP0059848. ASIZP0061694. ASIZP0061695. ASIZP0061720. ASIZP0063562. ASIZP0070097. ASIZP0070102. ASIZP0070105. ASIZP0070707. ASIZP0071567. ASIZP0071568. ASIZP0078336. ASIZP0078337. ASIZP0078365. ASIZP0080861. ASIZP0080862. ASIZP0080863. ASIZP0080864. ASIZP0700206. ASIZP0804180. ASIZP0804181. ASIZP0804182. ASIZP0805651. ASIZP0805652. ASIZP0805653. ASIZP0807108. ASIZP0807109. ASIZP0807136. ASIZP0807732 . ASIZP0807733. ASIZP0807734. ASIZP0807735. ASIZP0900142. ASIZP0900143. ASIZP0914180. ASIZP0914181. ASIZP0914182. ...List all 76 records... 
Barcode2012-01-15,柯慧玲,CO1,100% 2012-01-15,柯慧玲,CO1,100% 2016-01-26,Yu-Ming,CO1,100% 2016-01-27,Avon,CO1,99% 2016-01-27,Avon,CO1,100% 2016-01-28,Chia-Hao Chang,CO1,100%
Common Name Big-head pennah croaker 
Redlist Status NL Not in IUCN Redlist     
Characteristic Dorsal fin X-XI, I, 26-29; anal fin II, 6-7; pectoral fin I, 16-18; pelvic fin I, 5; lateral-line scales 49-51; gill-rakers 5-6 + 9-10; Body elongated and compressed, dorsal and ventral profile moderately curved. Head big. Mouth large, terminal and oblique, length of both jaws about equal. Teeth differentiated into large and small in both two jaws, upper jaw with outer row enlarged as canine teeth, tip of upper jaw without teeth; lower jaw with inner row enlarged as canine teeth and with a group tiny teeth at tip. 5 marginal pores, 3 rostral pores; 6 mental pores. Gill rakers slender, as 1.5 times of gill filaments at angle of arch. Sagitta morphology refered to as the Pennahia form, sagitta moderately triangular, with umbo on outer surface; inner (medial) surface moderately convex with a tadpole-shaped impression, which head heart shaped, tail slightly bended. Top of pectoral fin base opposite to the origin of dorsal fin base and below the tip of gill cover; origin of pelvic fin base behind origins of dorsal and pectoral fins; caudal fin rhomboid; The second spine of anal fin about 1.2-1.6 times of eye-diameter. Lining of body with blackish brown spots. Swim-bladder morphology refered to as the Pennahia form, swim-bladder typically carrot-shaped with 18-20 pairs of appendages, each with a ventral limb only, branched in a wing manner except for the first pair. None entering head. The posterior simple and parallel to the tubular end of the swimbladder.Color: body purplish brown at upper part and silverly white at lower part; dorsal fin light brown with dark brown margin; caudal fin light brown; anal, pelvic and pectoral fins nearly colorless. Lining of mouth dark gray, gill chamber blackish brown, gill cover bluish purple.
habitats Found in coastal waters. Feeds on small invertebrates and fishes. 
Distribution Pon_Fu, North, East, West. 
Utility Food fish.