Scientific Name
Mugil cephalus  
Mugil cephalus鯔
by: Lab of Fish Ecol. and Evo., BRCAS
Author Linnaeus, 1758 Depth 0 - 120M
Chinese Poisonous Fish No 
Family_Chinese 鯔科 Economic Fish Yes 
Family F245 Mugilidae Edible Fish Yes  Chinese In Mainland China 鯔 
Max Length 100 cm  Aquarium Fish No  Common Name 青頭仔(幼魚)、奇目仔(成魚)、信魚、正烏、烏魚、正頭烏、回頭烏、鯔、大烏(澎湖) 
Distribution in World global   Distribution in Taiwan East、West、South、North、North East、PonFu 
Habitats Coral、Benthos、Estuary、Coastal、
Holotype Locality European sea, Europe 
Synonyms Mugil albula, Mugil ashanteensis, Mugil cephalas, Mugil cephalotus, Mugil cephalus ashanteensis, Mugil cephalus cephalus, Mugil cephalus rammelsbergi, Mugil chaptalii, Mugil crenilabis our, Mugil dobula, Mugil galapagensis, Mugil gelatinosus, Mugil grandis ...all 30..  
Reference 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993);The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)  Tung, I. H.  Robert W. Hiatt 1947 Carl D. Riggs 1957 Dotu, Yosie etc. 1963 Fujiki, Tetsuo etc. 1963 Eckstein, B. etc. 1967 Cech, J.J. etc. 1975 Thomas, P. etc. 1981 Tung, I.H. 1981 Cech, J.J. etc. 1982 Chen, W. Y. etc. 1989 褚耀鈺 1991 沈世傑 編 Shih-Chieh Shen ed. 1993 張至維 1997 Carpenter, K. E. etc. 1999 Chang, C. W. etc. 2000 Chih Wei Chang, Shih Huan Lin, Yoshiyuki Lizuka etc. 2003 張至維 2003 黃朝盛 2004 Chang, C. W. etc. 2004 Martin A. Moe, Jr. ? 
Specimen List ASIZP0059023. ASIZP0060515. ASIZP0060619. ASIZP0062503. ASIZP0062731. ASIZP0064743. ASIZP0064865. ASIZP0067737. ASIZP0068502. ASIZP0068531. ASIZP0068747. ASIZP0068915. ASIZP0068921. ASIZP0070710. ASIZP0071134. ASIZP0071531. ASIZP0071536. ASIZP0072206. ASIZP0072271. ASIZP0072272. ASIZP0073682. ASIZP0074049. ASIZP0075012. ASIZP0076469. ASIZP0076484. ASIZP0076494. ASIZP0077791. ASIZP0080025. ASIZP0700225. ASIZP0800296. ASIZP0800468. ASIZP0802259. ASIZP0802260. ASIZP0802261. ASIZP0804992. ASIZP0807339. ASIZP0900511. ...List all 89 records... 
Barcode2008-03-24,Kui-Ching Hsu,CO1,100% 2012-01-08,柯慧玲,CO1,100% 2012-01-08,柯慧玲,CO1,100% 2012-01-08,柯慧玲,CO1,100% 2011-01-15,張家豪,CO1,% 2016-01-20,Chia-Hao Chang,CO1,100%
Common Name Sea mullet; River mullet; Springer; Striped mullet; Common grey mullet; Common mullet; Black mullet; Bright mullet; Black true mullet; Bully mullet; Callifaver mullet; Flathead grey mullet; Mullet; Haarder; Grey mullet; Flathead mullet; Hardgut mullet; Ma 
Redlist Status NL Not in IUCN Redlist     
Characteristic Head dorsally broad and flat, but deeper than wide. Upper lip with 1 or 2 outer rows of moderately close-set, unicuspid teeth and 1 to 5 inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth; inner, bicuspid teeth well spaced from outer, unicuspid teeth. Lower lip with outer row of moderately close-set unicuspid teeth; 1 or more inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth present or absent. Vomer edentate. Adipose eyefold extensive over iris. Gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch 50 to 90. Origin of fully erected second dorsal fin just posterior to vertical level of origin of anal fin; anal fin with III spines and 8 soft rays; caudal fin forked. Scales very weakly ctenoid; minute cycloid scales superimposed on main body scales, particularly on occipital region. Longitudinal series scale 36 to 44; 13 to 15 in transverse series; 25 or 26 in longitudinal series anterior to origin of second dorsal fin; 19 to 21 scales in transverse series entirely around caudal peduncle. Body olive-green dorsally, flanks silvery and abdomen off-white; about 7 longitudinal dark stripes along flanks, following rows of scales.
habitats Coastal species that often enters estuaries and rivers. Usually in schools over sand or mud bottom and dense vegetation. Mainly diurnal, feed on zooplankton, benthic organisms and detritus. Adult fish tend to feed mainly on algae while inhabiting fresh wa 
Distribution Worldwide in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters, although less abundant in tropics and apparently rare in Indonesia. It is common in waters around Taiwan 
Utility Very important commercial species in many parts of the world. Marketed fresh, salted, and frozen; roe sold fresh or smoked; also used in Chinese medicine.